Chapter 1


Heaven denotes dignity, while earth denotes lowliness (in terms of their positions); thus, hexagrams Qian and Kun are designated as Nature behaves: Qian represents heaven which stays above, and Kun represents earth staying below.  Lowliness (Kun) and highness (Qian) are displayed (in the form of hexagram 12); thus, nobleness and ignobleness are positioned (like its six lines being ranked from the bottom to the top).  Movement and stillness perform consistently according to their defined rules as the heavens circle around the earth; thus, firmness and tenderness are determined according to the masculinity of Qian and the femininity of Kun. Herewith the instincts of the masculine (Yang) and feminine (Yin) are given as: the masculine is firm (or rigid) and tends to move, while the feminine is tender (or soft) and tends to remain still. Qian and Kun are two originals.


After the whole of creation is categorised in a way that square goes with square and round goes with round, i.e. according to their features, and those of a kind are grouped into one category, the six trigrams, born by Qian (heaven) and Kun (earth), are assigned to represent each categoryHereafter good and bad fortune emerge and are displayed in the interplay of the images presented by the paired trigrams of a hexagram.  The phenomenon created by the interplay of images is abstract and forms in the heavens, and the image of the trigram is pictured from the shape of real substance that forms on the earth.  As the phenomenon varies with the image, change appears from hexagram to hexagram.


Thus, firmness and tenderness (i.e. the masculine and feminine line) jostle each other creating trigram; the eight trigrams intermingle with one another forming 64 hexagramsBy means of inspiring through the thunder (Zhen) and lightning (Li), and moistening through the wind (Xun) and rain (Kan), Yi constitutes its texts.  The sun (Li) and moon (Kan) circle forming a day, the cold winter (Kan) and hot summer (Li) shift once meaning one yearIn this way Yi is integrated with the world and moves synchronously with the world


Dao (the norm) of Qian (creativeness and perseverance) forms the characters of the male (who acts as a founder and leader), and Dao of Kun (submissiveness and receptiveness) forms the characters of the female (who acts as an adherent or assistant)Through creativeness Qian's wisdom like Heaven can greatly originate the whole of creation (or Qian like the founder and leader can establish an undertaking), and through receptiveness Kun's execution like earth can bring up the whole of creation (or Kun like the adherent and assistant can accomplish the assigned mission).  Qian acts in a manner easy to be understood (signifying that though Qian is full of creativity, it is persevering; therefore what it intends can be easily understood by just following its schemed path), while Kun acts in a manner of simplicity and talent (signifying that what it needs to do is simply to accomplish the mission assigned by Qian, as it is submissive)Thanks to easiness Qian can be easily understood, and thanks to simplicity Kun can easily follow Qian.  Easy understanding makes people be familiar with the norm of Qian, and easy following facilitates achievement of the assigned mission.  Familiarity can make the norm of Qian last long, while making achievements can magnify the norm of Kun.  Lasting long is the virtue of virtuous people, while magnifying the norm of Kun is the undertaking of virtuous people.  Through easiness (of Qian, or the founder and leader) and simplicity (of Kun, or the adherent and assistant), the order of the world is achieved.  After the order of the world is achieved, all people can perform well at their positions.


Chapter 2


The sage invented the hexagram with a view to observing its phenomena He provided each hexagram with a text in order to make good and bad fortune be clear.  He triggered rigidness (i.e. the masculine line) and softness (the feminine line) to jostle each other so as to create changes.  Thus, good and bad fortune are the phenomena of gain and loss.  Regret and resentment are the phenomena of worry and concern.  Changes are the phenomena of progress and regression.  Rigidness and softness are the phenomena of day and night (the bright masculine and shaded feminine).  The movements of six lines are Dao (the norms) of three domains (the heavenly, the human and the earthly domains, signifying that the lines should perform according to their positions).


Thus, that which a gentleman lives steadily with is the sequence of Yi (signifying that he takes 64 hexagrams as the guide of his life).  That which he enjoys and ponders over is the line text.  Thus, a gentleman observes the phenomenon of each hexagram and ponders over its texts when he remains inactive.  He observes changes and practices divination when he intends to do something.  As a result, he is blessed by Heaven, which is of auspiciousness and nothing unfavourable.


 Chapter 3


Tuan (Confucian commentary on the hexagram text) is that which describes the phenomenon of the hexagram.  The line text is that which explains change, i.e. the interplay between the masculine and feminine.  Good and bad fortune are those which mean gain and loss.  Regret and resentment are those which are regarded as small defects.  No calamity (or fault) is that of which the offence is corrected.

Good fortune is a sign of gain and signifies that everything progresses smoothly; it will lead to success. Bad fortune is a sign of loss and signifies that everything progresses unsmoothly; it will lead to failure. Regret is the capability of being aware of what has been done wrong and the intent to make corrections; it tends to good fortune. Resentment is a kind of indignation due to the unfavourable situation caused by one’s wrongdoings and narrow heart; it will lead to misjudgement. No calamity (or fault) means that originally there was a calamity but fault is corrected timely, and it will lead to good fortune.


Thus, that which ranks nobleness and ignobleness exists among the line positions.  That which equalises largeness and smallness exists in the hexagram (signifying to place the large masculine at a lowly position and place the small feminine at a noble position).  That which distinguishes good fortune from bad fortune exists in the text.  That which worries the occurrence of regret and resentment exists in precaution.  That which deters people in order to free them from calamity (or fault) exists in regret.  Thus, there are small and large hexagrams (i.e. either the small feminine or large masculine predominates in a hexagram), as well as dangerous and easy texts.  The text is that which advises people where to go, i.e. how to pursue good fortune and avoid bad fortune.


Chapter 4


Yi is constituted based on heaven and earth as it starts with hexagrams Qian and Kun, and all the other 62 hexagrams are derived from them; thus, it can establish the Dao of heaven and earth (the norms of the world) in a comprehensive manner.  It upwardly observes astronomical phenomena, and downwardly views terrestrial spectacles; thus, it is able to know the cause of every event in the light and shade.


Tracing the original state leads to knowing the end result; thus, the meaning of life and death can be understood.  Qi () condenses forming the substance which is presented in the form of heaven, earth, mountain, marsh, ...... ; when it separates from the substance, the wandering soul varies its shapes like the changing images of the paired trigrams in a hexagram; thus, the status of god and ghost (those which are invisible) can be known through the phenomena emerged from the hexagram.


The doctrine of Yi is similar to the principles of heaven and earth; thus, it won’t defy the rules of NatureIt possesses a thorough knowledge of the whole of creation, and its Dao (doctrine) is for aiding the world; thus, it won’t commit any fault.  It moves left and right but won't flow like water changing its shape (signifying that the hexagram changes from one to another but remains within the realm of Yi); it is content with what it is and knows what it is destined to be; thus, it won’t worry.  It remains at its place and sincere with benevolence; thus, it can love the whole of creation.


Yi contains the essences of heaven and earth (i.e. the masculine Yang and feminine Yin) and nothing more than these.  It adapts these to the whole of creation and thus won’t miss anything.  It masters Dao (rule) of day and night (the change between the bright Yang and shaded Yin) and thus becomes acknowledged about the ever-changing world.  Thus, god (the invisible, magic power) exists everywhere and Yi varies with no fixed forms, signifying that its function is unlimited.

The fundamental element of Nature is Yang and Yin, so is the fundamental element of Yi. Nature basically is composed of the masculine and feminine, rigidness and softness, light and darkness, movement and stillness, roundness and square, etc.


Chapter 5


The feminine Yin and masculine Yang is called Dao (the doctrine of Yi).  That which inherits it is goodness, from which all virtues stem.  That which materialises it is instinct, i.e. movement and stillness, firmness and tenderness presented by the feminine Yin and masculine Yang, respectively.  Benevolent people call it benevolence.  Wise people call it wisdom.  The commoners deal with it daily but don’t perceive its existence.  Thus, the Dao (the norm) of the gentleman is seldom recognised.


Benevolence of Yi is manifested when it is used, as its benevolence is concealed in use.  It inspires all creatures but won’t worry as the sage does, signifying that Yi won’t worry if people don’t use it, but the sage will worry if his ideal can't be carried out.  How far reaching the great virtue and grand undertaking are!  Opulent possession, like Yi inclusive of everything, is called the grand undertaking, and the daily innovation, like the ceaseless changes of Yi, is called the great virtue.  The one that never stops giving birth to oracular revelation, like 64 hexagrams unfolded one after another, is called Yi.  The one that forms phenomena is called Qian, as Qian denotes the heavens where phenomena emerge and are displayed.  The one that imitates them is called Kun, as Kun denotes the earth where the whole of creation form their shapes.  The one that knows the future by means of counting the yarrow stalk is called divination.  The one that is proficient in changes in order to progress smoothly is called things which people pursue through divination.  The one that determines the uncertainty of the feminine Yin and masculine Yang while divining is called god, i.e. the invisible, magic power which knows all those unknown to humans.


Chapter 6


Yi is one, wide and large.  When it goes far, nothing can stop it When it stays near, it remains still and righteous.  It exists everywhere within heaven and earth, and everything is outfitted with it.


The stillness of Qian is single-minded.  Though the masculine tends to move, Qian remains still before it is triggered to move.  Its motion is straightforward as the masculine is rigid.  Thus, largeness like that of the heavens is created.  The solidity of Qian’s masculinity can materialise the whole of creation into any and every form. This is the largeness of Qian The stillness of Kun is closed, and its motion is open like a clam closing and opening its shell.  Thus, wideness like that of the earth is formed.  The void of Kun’s femininity provides its wideness to accommodate the whole of creation.


Wideness and largeness of Yi match up to the heavens and earth.  Its changes without obstruction match up to four seasons. The appropriate action of its masculine Yang and feminine Yin matches up to the sun and moon.  The goodness of Qian's easiness and Kun's simplicity matches up to the utmost virtue.


Chapter 7


Confucius says: "How far reaching Yi is!"  Yi is that through which the sage attains his sublime virtue and establishes his great undertaking.  Yi could enable people to understand what is sublime and humbly act with etiquette.  People who imitate heaven, as what hexagram Qian provides, will become sublime.  People who imitate earth, as what hexagram Kun offers, will become humble.  Heaven and earth are positioned; Yi acts between them.  If one intends to develop the instincts of heaven and earth and accrue them through repeated preservation, Yi is the door of Dao (the virtue) and appropriate action.


Chapter 8


That which enables the sage to see the profundity of the world, through imaging the appearance of a hexagram and referring it appropriately to a real substance, is called phenomenon.  That which enables the sage to see the motion of the world through observing what creates smooth interplay and acting according to etiquette, and then provides a text to determine good or bad fortune, is called line (yao). 

The hexagram is to tell about the most complex profundity of the world rather than to deteriorate it.  The line is to tell about the most active motion of the world rather than to disorder it.  Divination is to tell about a cast hexagram after imagining its phenomenon, and then to move after contemplating the performance of its lines.  Imagination and contemplation constitute the change proposed for people's action.


"A calling crane in the shade; its young responds to it; I have a goblet of good wine and will share it with you."  Confucius says: "A gentleman stays home; what he says is good; people thousands of miles away will respond to him; how much more so those next to him!  Staying home, what he says is bad; people thousands of miles away will defy him; how much more so those next to him!  The influence of what a gentleman says will be imposed on people; the effect of what a gentleman does in the vicinity will reach far.  Words and deeds constitute the axle centre of a gentleman; what radiates from the axle centre is the origin of honour and disgrace.  Words and deeds are those which a gentleman counts on to move the world; how could one not be cautious?" The above refers to line 2 of hexagram Zhong Fu (61), sincerity and trustiness radiating from the heart.


"Tong Ren cries first but laughs later."  Confucius says: "Dao (the norm) of a gentleman is either to be accomplished out or kept within himself, either to be expressed in public or silently concealed; two persons have the same aspiration; their sharpness can cut metal, and their words smell like an orchid." The above refers to line 5 of hexagram Tong Ren (13), to build fellowship.


Yi (line 1 of hexagram Da Guo (28), large excess) states: "Using the white cogongrass as the mat, which will cause no fault (or calamity)."   Confucius say: "Suppose to place that grass as the mat for the sacrificial offering on the ground is appropriate; what fault is to use the white cogongrass as the mat for the greatly excessive masculinity?  Sincerity and prudence reach extremity.  The white cogongrass is a cheap material, but it can bear the heavy load.  To go forth in a sincere and prudent manner won’t cause any fault."


Yi (line 3 of hexagram Gian1 (15), humility) states: "Hard working Qian1 a gentleman is; to carry through to the end is auspicious."  Confucius say: "To work hard but not to exaggerate it, and to attain merit but not to take it as one’s own credit, which are honesty and reliability reaching the utmost, and which refers to one who bestows achievement and merit on those below (or, who attains achievement and merit but stays below others).  Virtue is that which must be grand, and etiquette is that which must be reverent.  Qian1 means that one behaves with the utmost reverence at one’s post."


Yi (line 6 of hexagram Qian2 (1), perseverance) states: "The haughty dragon, which will have cause to regret."  Confucius says: "One is in a state of possessing prestige but with no corresponding post, and being at the high ranking position but with no support from people; virtuous persons stay below, i.e. all lines below line 6, but no assistance is obtainable; hence, act without support has cause to regret."


Yi (line 1 of hexagram Jie (60), to restrict) states: "Not to leave the inner courtyard, which signifies no fault (or calamity)."  Confucius says: "The riot occurs; what has been said is like the stairs, i.e. the cause. The king who cannot be discreet in his words will lose his courtier; the courtier who cannot be discreet in his words will lose his life, and the confidential plan that cannot be kept secret will not be accomplished.  Hence a gentleman must be discreet in his words and maintain them internally."


Confucius says: "Doesn’t the writer of Yi know about robbery?"  Yi (line 3 of hexagram Xie (40), to alleviate) states: "Carrying a pack on the back while riding in a carriage, could prompt a robber to attack.  To carry a pack on one's back is the way of a commoner (while the carriage is transportation for nobles).  When a commoner adopts the means of nobles, a bandit will think of robbing him (of his pack).  When one is insolent toward those above and violent toward those below, the bandit thinks of attacking him (because of his behaviour).  To hide the treasure slowly will incite robbery; to apply cosmetics vainly will induce harassment.  Yi states: "Carrying a pack on the back and riding on a carriage, which prompts the robber to attack."  This is what causes the robbery.


Chapter 9


Heaven (is designated as) 1 and earth (is designated as) 2; heaven 3 and earth 4; heaven 5 and earth 6; heaven 7 and earth 8; heaven 9 and earth 10.  Heaven has 5 numbers, and earth has 5 numbers.  Each five numbers are added, respectively.  (The sum of) heaven is equal to 25 and (the sum of) earth equal to 30.  The total of heaven and earth equals to 50 plus 5.  It is the one that creates change and carries out (the things, such as asking advice through divination, of) god and ghost.

Heaven is masculine and the masculine is denoted by the odd numbers: 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9; its sum is 25. Earth is feminine and the feminine is denoted by the even number: 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10; its sum is 30. The total of heaven and earth is 50 plus 5. Divining with the yarrow stalk is based on this and its counting method will result in 6, 7, 8 and 9, four numbers; 6 and 8 represent the feminine line and 7 and 9 represent the masculine line.


The method of Da Yan (大衍) is to prepare 50 pieces of yarrow stalks (Remarks: Although the sum of heaven and earth (i.e. the world) is 50 plus 5, 5 is deducted as the neutral in order to obtain the numbers (6, 7, 8 and 9) of the young and old masculine and feminine) but use 49 pieces (signifying to put one piece aside as the symbol of no ridgepole), and then divide 49 pieces of the stalks into two heaps as the symbol of the polarities (the masculine Yang and feminine Yin), and then clip one piece picked up from the right-hand heap between the nail and the ring finger of the left hand as the symbol of three domains (the heavenly, the human and the earthly domains), and then count the stalks of the right-hand group by fours till the remaining pieces are less than four as the symbol of four dualities (the young and the old Yang, as well as the young and the old Yin), and then insert the remaining pieces between the ring and the middle finger of the left hand as the symbol of the intercalary month; after five years there is another intercalary month (signifying to count the stalks of the left-hand heap by fours till the remaining pieces are less than four, and then to insert the remaining pieces between the ring and the middle finger of the right hand. The last step is to add up all pieces in both hands and the sum is the number (N1) of the first counting); then the abovementioned procedure must be repeated in order to form the first line of a hexagram, signifying to put aside those pieces obtained for the first number (N1), and use all other pieces repeating the dividing, counting and inserting procedures for the next number (N2) till three counts are completed; then to add up all stalks (of N1, N2 and N3) and deduct the sum (N1 + N2 +N3) from 49, and then divide the remainder (49 - N1 - N2 - N3) by four. The quotient is the number for the first line.


The yarrow stalk required to form hexagram Qian are two hundred and sixteen pieces while the pieces to form hexagram Kun are one hundred forty four, for a total of three hundred and sixty, the number of days in a year of the lunar calendar. The total pieces of all the feminine and masculine hexagrams are eleven thousand, five hundred and twenty (216 x 32 + 144 x 32 = 11,520); it is the number of the whole of creation.

The old masculine Yang is 9 while the old feminine Yin is 6. Every count is done by four; in total there are 6 lines per a hexagram; hence the stalk pieces of Qian equal 9 x 4 x 6 = 216 and Kun, 6 x 4 x 6 = 144.


Thus, four steps (i.e. dividing the stalks into two heaps, clipping one piece, counting the stalks, and clipping the remainders) are required to form Yi (the change between the masculine Yang and feminine Yin), and eighteen changes (signifying that a hexagram is composed of six lines and three changes are required to form one line) are required to form a hexagram.  Eight trigrams accomplish a small achievement as only nine changes are involved to form one trigramThrough drawing out one line and extending to others, as well as attaining one trigram and then producing the other, all the possible setups of the world are covered, signifying to draw out the trigram one after the other, and then the two trigrams forms a hexagram. The eight trigrams intermingle with one another forming 64 hexagrams; the 64 hexagrams can cover all possible phenomena occurring in the world.


One who manifests Dao (the doctrine of Yi) and the virtuous behaviour of god can communicate with and aid god to carry out god's job, i.e. to enlighten humans.  Confucius says: "One who knows Dao (the rule) of change knows how god performs."


Chapter 10


Yi comprises four Daos (norms) of the sage: those who want to be eloquent study its texts; those who want to know how to act appropriately imitates its changes; those who want to invent implements observe its phenomena, and those who want to engage in fortune-telling practice divining.

Yi is made up of four basic elements: text, change, phenomenon, and divination. Its significances are summarized in its texts. Its changes are advice on how to behave in a complex environment. Its phenomena are created from the images of the whole of creation. Through divination people can foresee good fortune, bad fortune, regret, resentment and no calamity.


Thus, when a gentleman plains to do something, or plains to journey, he asks Yi for advice through praying by speech.  Yi will take the order and act as a guide.  Whether it is a subject far (the future) or near (today), vague or profound, what will come is known.  If it is not the most proficient in the world, how could it perform like this?


Practicing divination is to achieve change (of Yang and Yin) through shuffling and dividing yarrow stalks, and to acquire number (of each line) through counting and calculating them.  The unobstructed change establishes the textures of the heavens and earth (the symbol of the cosmos, i.e. the hexagram), and bringing numbers into full play determines which hexagram to present the phenomena of the heavens and earth (the world).  If it is not the best performance of change in the world, how could it act like this?


When Yi neither thinks nor acts, it remains quiet and still like a book.  When it is activated by divination, it can know the cause of everything occurring in the world.  If it is not the greatest god, how could it perform like this?


Yi is that which the sage counted on to attain profundity and minuteness.  Due to its profundity, the sage could consider thoroughly to comprehend the aspirations of the world.  Due to its minuteness, the sage could watch every detail to achieve the undertakings of the world.  Due to god (its magic power), the sage could count on it to be very fast but not hasty, and reach everywhere without moving.  Confucius says: ‘Yi comprises four Daos (four norms) of the sage.’  This is what is meant.


Chapter 11


Confucius says: "What is Yi?  Yi is the one that starts from the origination of the whole of creation and ends at accomplishment of its missions of unfolding 64 hexagrams, as well as covers Dao (all the principles and rules) of the world; it is merely of those.  Thus, through Yi the sage could comprehend the aspirations of the world, and establish the undertakings of the world, as well as determine the misgivings of the world."


Thus, the virtue of the yarrow stalk is round (signifying that it functions in circles) and like god (who has magic power and is able to know all unknown to humans).  The virtue of the hexagram is square (signifying that it can rectify people) according to its knowledge of the world.  The significance of six lines is to offer advice to people through their changes.  Herewith the sage purified his heart, withdrew from society living a solitary life and then concealed all what he knew in the hexagram confidentially (signifying that he devoted himself to invent the hexagram and provide it with the text), as well as underwent good and bad fortune with people.  God can know what will come, i.e. what will happen in future, while what will happen conceals in the sign which just past and needs people to discover.  Who could perform this?  It is one who was intelligent and judicious in ancient times, and one who was so powerful like god and did not impose death on people but rather used the yarrow stalk to regulate people


Thus, The sage was aware of Dao (the rule) of Heaven, and investigated the causes of people’s concerns, as well as invented the sacred implement (the yarrow stalk) to lead people to use it.  Herewith the sage divined as if fasting; his virtue was as high as god.


Thus, closing door is called Kun as all will remain still like the feminine Yin, while opening door is called Qian as all becomes active like the masculine Yang.  One closing and opening is called change from Kun to Qian, and from femininity to masculinity, while closing and opening back and forth freely is called the unobstructed change.  That which (closing and opening) can be seen is called phenomenon.  That which (the door) possesses a shape is called implement (i.e. the yarrow stalk, which creates the feminine and masculine to form a hexagram)That which is enacted and used is called the rule (the reading method).  That which makes use of opening and closing to move in and out (i.e. makes use of the phenomenon to act freely), and people all use it, is called god (the magic power of YI).


Thus, Yi possesses Tai Ji (太極)Tai Ji gives birth to polarities (liang3 yi2, i.e. the bright Yang and dark Yin like day and night), and the polarities produces four dualities (si4 xiang4, i.e. the young and old masculine Yang, as well as the young and old feminine Yin, like spring, summer, autumn and winter), and then four dualities bring forth eight trigrams (Qian, Kun, Zhen, Xun, Kan, Lin, Gen and Dui: heaven, earth, the thunder, the wind, water, fire, the mountain and the marsh).  The eight trigrams which intermingle with one another forming 64 hexagrams determine good and bad fortune; then good and bad fortune establish the great undertaking of Yi, which people in the world try to pursue or avoid.


Thus, the phenomenon which is imaged cannot be larger than heaven and earth.  The change which varies without obstruction cannot be larger (smoother) than four seasons.  The hung phenomenon which enlightens people cannot be larger (brighter) than the sun and moon.  The social status that is high and esteemed cannot be larger (greater) than wealth and nobleness (as the ranking from the bottom to the top in a hexagram)People who bring material to full play, and use it as an implement to benefit the world cannot be larger (greater) than the sage who produced the yarrow stalkThe sacred substance which searches those profound and seeks those concealed, as well as unearthes those deep and reaches those far in order to determine good and bad fortune of the world, and accomplishes the great undertaking of the world cannot be larger (more magical) than the yarrow stalk and the tortoise’s shell.


Thus, Heaven bore the sacred substance (the yarrow stalk), and the sage used it for divination.  Through imitating the change between the heavens and earth, the sage made the rule of change for Yi.  Phenomenon is hung down from the heavens, wherein good and bad fortune appear.  The sage outfitted the hexagram with them according to what is seen in the phenomenon.  Tu (: drawing) came out from He (: the river); hence it is called the He Tu river map.  Luo () brought forth Shu (: the writing) and is called the Luo Shu square.  The sage used them to invent the trigram.

It is said that in the years of mythical emperor Fu Xi (伏羲), a dragon horse emerged from the Yellow River carrying the He Tu (河圖) river map on its back. Fu Xi used the map to invent eight trigrams

It is said that in the dynasty of Xia (Approx. 2200 B.C. to 1760 B.C), a tortoise arose from the Luo River and carried the Luo Shu (洛書) Square. Wen Wang (文王) Bagua was made out of it. 


Yi possesses four dualities; through divination a hexagram is formed and exhibited. Every hexagram and its lines are tagged with a text, whereby advice is provided.  Every advice is given good fortune or bad fortune, whereby judgement is determined.


Chapter 12


Yi says: "To be blessed by Heaven, (which is of) auspiciousness and nothing unfavourable."  Confucius says: "To bless signifies to assist.  That which wins the assistance of Heaven is submissiveness, i.e. being submissive to the rule of Heaven.  That which obtains the assistance of people is sincerity and trust.  Hence, one who acts sincerely and trustworthily, and always keeps submissiveness in mind, as well as respects virtuous people will be blessed by Heaven.  This is auspicious and nothing is unfavourable." The above is quoted from line 6 of hexagram Da You (14), abundant possessions.


Confucius says: "What were expressed in writing could not completely describe what were achieved through speaking, and speaking also could not entirely reflect what were signified in mind."  Is what was meant by the sage not possible to express?  Confucius says: "The sage created phenomenon to exhibit significance.  He invented the hexagram to distinguish truth from falseness.  He provided the text to express his words.  He introduced change for the unobstructed progress to attain benefit (the favourable condition).  He drums and dances, while divining, to perform like god who has the magic power to see the future."


Are Qian and Kun where Yi is conceived?  Qian and Kun are arrayed; Yi exists within them, as Qian and Kun represent heaven and earth, as well as the origination of masculinity and femininity, respectively. Hexagrams Qian and Kun are the first two hexagrams. Once they are positioned in their places, the other 62 hexagrams will develop from them one after anotherIf Qian and Kun are destroyed, it is not possible to display Yi.  If Yi cannot be displayed, the world is nearly at rest.


Thus, that which exists without shape is called Dao, i.e. the doctrine of Yi, the rules of heaven and earth, and the norm of human behaviour.  That which appears with shape is called implement, i.e. a real substance which people can make use of.  That which varies and is regulated simultaneously is called change.  That which pushes (signifying the masculine and feminine line jostle each other) and moves forward is called the unobstructed progress.  That which is carried out and applied to people in the world is called undertaking.


Thus, that which enables the sage to see the profundity of the world, through imaging the appearance of a hexagram and referring it appropriately to a real substance in the world, is called phenomenon.  That which enables the sage to see the motion of the world, through observing what creates smooth interplay and acting according to etiquette, and then provides a text to determine good or bad fortune, is called line.


That which attains the most profound philosophy of the world exists in the hexagram.  That which inspires all life in the world to move exists in the line text.  That which varies and is regulated simultaneously exists in change.  That which pushes (in a way of the masculine and feminine line jostling each other) and moves forward exists in the unobstructed progress.  That which acts like god (the invisible, magic power) and makes the unknown be clear exists in people who use Yi.  That which is silently achieved and believed without need to say exists in the virtuous behaviour.