14 Da4 You3 大有

The bottom: Qian2 (perseverance, heaven). The upper: Li (clinging, fire).

Da You: abundant possessions (which should ideally be possessed by all people); or (the feminine) possesses largeness (i.e. the masculine).





After fellowship (Tong Ren) is built, things (i.e. resources) will definitely converge; therefore Da You is granted. People of the same aspiration gather together; all resources will become available. da4 (large) you3 (possession) literally means abundant possessions. It shows all five masculine lines converging toward feminine line 5 at the king’s position, and line 5 possessing all resources. It is the reverse hexagram of Tong Ren (13) which exhibits intimacy as a result of fellowship. Da You of hexagram 14 expresses a multitude as line 5 possesses many (masculine lines). Both hexagrams have only one feminine line. The feminine line of Tong Ren is at a low rank; therefore it goes along the timeline to build fellow-ship with the masculine lines. In Da You, however, the feminine line is at the core position of high rank; thus all masculine lines come to join it. This presents a scene of the small feminine possessing largeness, i.e. the masculine lines. Therefore hexagram 14 is also taken to mean (to possess) (largeness).

The upper trigram Li is the sun. It is shining in the sky above, so all life is growing which is a sign of flourishing. Trigram Li is summer and trigram Qian2 autumn. All life grows profusely in summer while autumn is the season for harvesting. Hence hexagram Da You suggests prosperity with further wealth after the harvest.

The internal hexagram of Da You is Guai (43); Guai means a torrential downpour which signifies a latent crisis. Therefore hexagram Da You might burst if it isn't properly apportioned. In other words, 大有 must be further paraphrased as (large) jia (quantifier used to count household) : to be possessed by all people. Its changing hexagram is Bi3 (8), intimate interdependence, signifying that abundant possessions are like a magnet causing more and more resources to converge. Conversely, all resources are gathered as a result of intimate interdependence.


Text: 大有元亨

Da You (abundant possessions): It is of great and smooth progress.

Commentary on the text: Da You: The one of tenderness attains the dignitary position and acts with great moderation so that those above and below respond to it; this is called Da You.  Its norm is to own rigidity (i.e. strength and firmness) and perseverance of the internal trigram Qian2 but exhibit in the form of civilisation as the external trigram Li acts.  It conforms to Heaven and acts in an opportune manner; hence it will progress greatly and smoothly.

Text explanation:

Line 5, the host and representative line of hexagram Da You, is a tender feminine but occupies the king’s position, i.e. position 5. All the masculine lines come to associate with it in the way that line 2, the representative line of trigram Qian2, correlates with it. Lines 4 and 6 are friendly next to it. With its tenderness and dignitary position (i.e. it is honourable but modest) combined with the principle of moderation it can possess largeness, i.e. all the masculine lines. That way it can maintain the state of abundant possessions.

The internal trigram Qian2 is a masculine rigid trigram and is characterised as perseverance. The external trigram Li denotes fire, which represents civilisation. They both describe the norm of hexagram Da You, i.e. internally it is strong, firm and persevering while externally it acts in a civilised manner. In the time of the small possessing the large, it acts in an opportune manner according to Heaven (the lower trigram Qian2, i.e. those below). That way it can progress greatly and smoothly.

Commentary on the image: Fire above heaven: Da You.  A gentleman, in accordance with this, suppresses evil and enhances goodness; he submits to the mandate of Heaven and cultivates life.

Trigram Li is the sun which shines in the sky and illuminates the whole of creation signifying that there is no room for darkness. In accordance with this, a gentleman conforms to Heaven's will and cultivates his life.


After fellowship has been widely established and all resources gathered, one will progress greatly and smoothly. What brings this about is strength, firmness and perseverance main-tained internally, with civilisation expressed externally following the mandate of Heaven or the will of the people in an opportune manner. This is how the small one is able to possess the large - with tenderness, dignity and moderation.

Its internal hexagram Guai (43), a torrential downpour, signals the potential for a crisis if abundant possessions are not evenly distributed. Its changing hexagram Bi3 (8), intimate interdependence, suggests that many more people and resources will converge.

Hexagram Da You can be also seen as an abundance of good fortune available as its great and smooth progress is provided without any conditions. On the other hand, as it possesses only the virtues of origination and smooth progress, i.e. not those of advantage and persis-tence, Da You emphasises sharing with others in order to maintain a rich and prosperous state.

It also suggests that a person should curb evil and promote goodness, as well as live according to the will of Heaven as stated in the commentary on the image.





Hexagram Da You is a state towards which all people and resources converge; it is symbolic of prosperity and opulence. Line 5 is the host line that abundantly possesses all. Line 1 should not be proud of reaching this grand state, but realise that it is just beginning and it must make a contribution in order to join the convergence. Line 2, correlating with line 5 and delivering all resources to it, must be reliable in order to carry on in the same manner. Line 3 should appreciate those who help it achieve the prosperous and opulent state, and repay them. Line 4 must not show off to avoid envy and calamity. Line 5, reaching the peak of abundant possessions, should sincerely and trustworthily associate with others in order to attract more convergence. If all this is achieved, line 6 will be blessed by Heaven; it is auspicious and nothing unfavourable. Then the hexagram will proceed to Qian1 (15), humility, which people must seek after abundance possessions, as it is free of misfortune.



From the perspective of abundance being possessed by all people, converging resources must be evenly distributed after all people become one family in hexagram Tong Ren (13). Line 5, the king, sincerely values what it receives from those below and submits the resources with trust to the country, line 6. Line 2, the courtier correlating with line 5 by offering its service, delivers a fully loaded cart of resources to the king. Line 3, the duke, pays tribute to the king. Line 4 shares its treasures knowing that they would be levied and distributed to commoners. Line 1 is the commoner who has no access to the king but that is not calamitous as he will eventually benefit from line 6 (i.e. the shrine, the symbol of the country) sustained by line 5. If line 6 can achieve its mission of sharing resources with all people, it will be blessed by Heaven and be able to maintain prosperity and opulence over a long period of time.

The 1st line

Text: 无交害(not)艱則(an auxiliary confirming and stressing the following phrase)无咎

Owing to no association the subject suffers being hurt (无交害), but it is not calamitous. To adamantly endure difficulty () can lead to no calamity.

Text explanation:

Line 1 has no correlation with line 5, the king, to which all masculine lines and resources converge. This signifies that line 1 arrives at a world of abundant possessions but it is unable to join the convergence, or it can't reach the resources. Hence it is hurt. However, as long as it can adamantly endure its difficulty, this won’t lead to any calamity.

jian originally signified (the land) difficult to cultivate and extendedly means (things) difficult to manage. Here it is interpreted as that the situation is difficult and one must adamantly (jian) to overcome all the difficulties; otherwise the calamity will befall. is a homophone and means firmness and unwavering.

Commentary on the image: The first line of Da You (abundant possessions) deserves no calamity, which is due to no harmful pride (无 驕害).

Pride” (jiao) has the same pronunciation as “association” (jiao) and was written in this simplified way in ancient times. Therefore wu2 (nil) 交害hai4 (to hurt or harm) can either be translated as "being hurt due to no association" or "no harmful pride" which signifies that a person can avoid calamity if he doesn't take pride in reaching the world of abundant posse-ssions.

Enlightenment through nine one: 1) be not proud of reaching the prosperous and opulent state, or 2) be adamant in enduring the darkness before dawn. One is hurt as a result of no access to the convergence, but this is not calamitous. One must realise that now is just the beginning and one still needs to make a contribution. Further, one must adamantly endure one's difficulty of no resources. Then there won't be any calamity. The hexagram that forms after this line acts accordingly is Ding (50), the cauldron, by which virtuous people are fed. This signifies that prosperity and opulence will eventually be distributed to, and shared by, all people who behave well.


The 2nd line

Text: 大車(big cart)(use, be used to)(carry, load)(there be)(place)(go)无咎

A big cart is capable of being loaded.  It has somewhere to go, which is of no calamity (or fault).

Text explanation:

In the time of abundant possessions, a cart is needed to carry all the resources. Line 2 is a masculine axle centre, like a cart with a strong structure capable of carrying a heavy load over a long distance. It correlates with line 5, like an able and reliable courtier serving the king.

If this line goes to position 5, both lines 2 and 5 will become axle centres at their appropriate positions. This signifies that the line is suited to carrying out what is assigned, which won’t cause any calamity. The hexagram will then become Tong Ren (13), the ideal of which is that people around the world are one family and share what they have with others.



Commentary on the image: A big cart is capable of being loaded; with accumulation in the middle (or with the accumulation of moderation) it won’t fail.

The cart will bear the load if the cargo is piled up in the middle. Line 2 stays in the middle of the lower trigram; therefore it is reliable and can bear the cargo evenly loaded, like a strong courtier serving a tender king through the principle of moderation.

Enlightenment through nine two: 1) to bear hardship without complaining, or 2) to take on heavy responsibilities and make a contribution. The big cart is capable of carrying all the resources and reaching its far destination. This signifies that as a reliable person he can carry out what is assigned without calamity. If this line changes to feminine, the hexagram will appears as Li (30), clinging, where to herd cattle (for pulling the big cart) is auspicious.


The 3rd line

Text: 公用(use)(offer sacrifices)(to)(heaven)(son)小人(villain)(not)(be able to)

The duke () uses sacrifices to worship the Son of Heaven (or, pays tribute to the king) (天子); the villain is unable to do so.

Text explanation:

The status and wealth of a duke is bestowed by the king who is honoured as the son of Heaven. In a time of prosperity and opulence, the duke is obliged to use what he earns to pay tribute to the king in return. Today this can be seen in the belief that what is taken from society should be used in the interests of society. (the duke) is the highest-rank official in Dynasty Zhou. In that time the Son of Heaven (天子) was not the official title of the king but the concept of divine right already existed. 

Both the lower and the inner lower trigrams are Qian2 which here denotes gold and jade. Line 3 is the duke and represents the inner lower trigram Qian2. All treasure is carried on the big cart of line 2 and presented to the king as a tribute. The upper trigram Dui (joy, the marsh) is joy; line 5 is its representative line, signifying that the king is pleased.



If line 3 changes to Yin symbolised by the feminine line and becomes a villain, trigram Qian2 disappears, while line 3 itself is pleased.


Commentary on the image: The duke uses sacrifice to worship the son of Heaven (or, pays tribute to the king); the villain does harm.

When the villain becomes rich, he can harm society. The villain only pleases himself, and others will be hurt because he is heartless.

Enlightenment through nine three: to pay back for received benefits. Once one becomes prosperous and opulent, one must pay something back. When this line changes to feminine, the hexagram becomes Kui (38), alienation, where the one above and below become alienated form each other.


The 4th line

Text: 匪其彭无咎

The subject ought not to exhibit its grand state (匪其彭), which will result in no calamity (or fault).

Text explanation:

peng2 means drumbeat, as well as a grand and plentiful state. In the time of abundant possessions, to beat the drum and exhibit the grand state can be seen as showing off. fei3 (not) qi2 (its) therefore means not to expose one’s abundant possessions.

Line 4 is Yang (symbolised by the masculine line) which is seen as superiority. It is under line 5, the king, which here is Yin (the feminine line), seen as inferiority. The inferior Yin rides over the superior Yang signifying oppression. Thus line 4 should maintain a low profile, i.e. not expose itself too much. Abundant possessions will incur envy and feel like a thereat to others; this will cause calamity.

Commentary on the image: Not to exhibit its grand state and no calamity (or fault), which signifies to be intelligent and behave oneself.

Line 4 is at a position for the shaded Yin (feminine). Though masculine tends to move, position 4 is a place for resting. As long as it can behave according to its position, it can avoid calamity. Herewith line 4 changes to feminine Yin, becoming shaded and remaining still. Even though the hexagram becomes Da Chu (26), where it herds livestock on a large scale but won't eat alone, i.e. it will shares with others. Therefore it won't incur calamity when the king in hexagram Da You levies riches from those who have more than they need to help those who are in need.

Enlightenment through nine four: not to show off. When this line is triggered to move, it signifies that in a state of prosperity and opulence one should maintain a low profile, i.e. not exhibit one's grand state. Then one won’t incur any calamity or fault. Hexagram Da Chu (26) forms after this line acts accordingly and changes to feminine. 


The 5th line

Text: 厥孚交如(dignity)

The subject ought to radiate sincerity and trust (厥孚) in associating with others (交如), yet dignity as it is.  This is of auspiciousness.

Text explanation:

A person, occupying a high-ranking position and possessing all converging resources, sincerely and trustworthily associates with others; this adds to his dignity and is auspicious. jue2 of 厥孚fu2 (sincerity and trust) is a device used to throw rocks in battle and hence suggests the notion of radiating. ru2 (like) of jiao (to associate with) means that which is descried is the status when it is at the end of a sentence and acts as a auxiliary word.

Line 5 is feminine at the position of the king, signifying that it tenderly stays at the dignitary position. It also represents the upper trigram Li which is a condensed image of Zhong Fu (61), properly balanced sincerity and trust radiating from the heart. Therefore it associates with the other masculine lines in a gentle way according to sincerity and trust.



Commentary on the image: Line 5 ought to radiate sincerity and trust in associating with others; trust inspires aspirations.  It attains the auspiciousness of dignity, which is due to easily getting along with others and no need for vigilance.

To sincerely and trustfully associate with others enables one’s aspirations to be carried out with their trust. When it is easy to get along, there is no need to be alert; then all people and resources will converge. This is auspicious for the one above who possesses the dignitary position and behaves accordingly.

Enlightenment through six five: to apply authority judiciously and with sincerity and trust. When a person occupies a high-ranking position where all resources converge, he should cherish what he possesses and not be arrogant. He should also deal with others sincerely and trustworthily. This won’t lessen his prestige but rather increase it, which is auspicious. The hexagram that forms after this line is activated changing to masculine is Qian2 (1) which denotes Heaven or the king who possesses the world.


The 6th line

Text: (from)(heaven)(help, protect)(it, i.e. line 6)吉无(nothing)(not)(advantage)

From Heaven blessing is granted to the subject, which is of auspiciousness and with nothing unfavourable.

Text explanation:

Confucius said: "To bless signifies to assist. That which wins the assistance of Heaven is submissiveness (i.e. being submissive to the mandate of Heaven); that which obtains the assistance of people is sincerity and trust. Hence, one who acts sincerely and trustworthily, and always keeps submissiveness in mind, as well as respects virtuous people, will be blessed by Heaven; this is auspicious and nothing is unfavourable."

When prosperity and opulence reach the upper extremity, presumably there should be the tendency to decline. However, line 6 is sustained by line 5, the representative line of Da You and the king, toward whom all resources are converging. Hence everything possessed by line 5 is submitting to, and then emanating again from, line 6, the shrine (i.e. the symbol of a regime or country).

Line 5 correlates with line 2, the representative line of the lower trigram Qian2 which denotes heaven and represents those below (the people), signifying that the king acts in accordance with the mandate of Heaven and the wish of the people, i.e. he abides by the mandate of Heaven taking care of its people. As a result the abundant possessions will be evenly distributed in the country and all the people will benefit. This will cause all resources to continue converging toward him, and then to the country; it is auspicious and nothing is unfavourable.



Commentary on the image: The top of Da You (abundant possessions) is auspicious, which is derived from the blessing of Heaven.

According to traditional Chinese politics, wang2 (the king) yi3 (to regard) min2 (the people) wei2 (to be) tian (heaven), (the people) (to regard) shi2 (food stuff) (to be) (heaven) is an everlasting rule. This means that the people are all important to the king, while food is all important to the people. Importance is expressed by the word tian, heaven.

Enlightenment through nine six: 1) submit to Heaven and 2) benefit the people, especially that which is taken from the people must be used in the interests of the people. In addition to hard work, a good harvest also depends on properly timed sunshine and rain, which is a blessing from Heaven. A country that shares all resources with its people will obtain the blessing of Heaven; this is auspicious and nothing is unfavourable. After this line is fully activated, the hexagram becomes Da Zhuang (34), largeness and strength. Here they are on the right track.